Eliminate lead from daily life

With the continued electrification of automotive power systems, the dominance of cold start requirements has been weakened. In the case of plug-in hybrid vehicles, automakers use high-voltage systems to start internal combustion engines. This means there is no need for a 12V system that supports cold start. We believe that in the 12V batteries of hybrid and pure electric vehicles, lead-acid will soon be replaced by lithium-ion technology, because the longer the battery life, the more value it brings to customers.

Lead has many uses in the past, but it is a highly toxic substance that is very harmful to the human body and has been phased out in almost all places. One of the remaining applications today is the 12V starter battery, which is present in almost every car. The transition from lead-acid batteries to lithium-ion batteries is the basis for the EU’s legislative proposal to update this subject.

Lead-acid battery and lithium-ion battery technology

In addition to meeting the requirements of sustainable development, lithium-ion batteries also have excellent advantages in weight and volumetric energy density, which can significantly reduce the weight of vehicles and save space. The technology also supports the recovery of more energy during braking (higher dynamic charging acceptance) and improves the efficiency of the power system. Lithium-ion batteries have low self-discharge rate, superior cycle stability, and long shelf life, so they need to be replaced longer than equivalent lead-acid batteries. The challenge of lithium-ion technology is low-temperature performance, which is not suitable for starting internal combustion engines (ICE) in cold weather conditions. However, a recent technical comparison led by the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (EAMA) found that the cold-start performance of lithium-ion is equivalent to that of lead-acid. Although the price of lithium-ion batteries has dropped by approximately 89% between 2010 and 2020, the cost issue still exists.

Eliminate lead from daily life

With the continued electrification of automotive power systems, the dominance of cold start requirements has been weakened. In the case of plug-in hybrid vehicles, automakers use high-Voltage systems to start internal combustion engines. This means there is no need for a 12V system that supports cold start. We believe that in the 12V batteries of hybrid and pure electric vehicles, lead-acid will soon be replaced by lithium-ion technology, because the longer the battery life, the more value it brings to customers. Unlike lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries require a battery management system (BMS) to implement some important functions, such as safety, capacity, multi-cell battery management, and charging control.

Advantages of integrated BMS solutions

All lithium-ion batteries require a battery management system (BMS) to achieve some important functions, including safety, capacity, multi-cell battery management, and charging control. NXP provides a complete integrated solution for 12V lithium-ion battery management, including accurate monitoring and protection of voltage, temperature sensing and current measurement of 3 to 6 batteries. The latest version C battery cell controller (BCC) MC33772 is equipped with all new functions to meet customer needs. The average value of the ON-chip measurement effectively acts as a digital filter, helping to reduce the load on the communication bus and microcontroller, while allowing partial analog filtering to be removed. This helps to reduce overall eBOM costs, resulting in high-quality and cost-optimized solutions.

Eliminate lead from daily life

Safety

The AEC-Q100-compliant IC fully meets the requirements of automotive functional safety applications because it is designed according to the ISO 26262 specification and can achieve ASIL C at the chip level. Similarly, it is also suitable for other lead-acid replacement applications, including RV car auxiliary batteries, golf carts and solar cells, as well as drones, logistics robots, etc.

Implementation plan

As part of our implementation plan, NXP developed an evaluation board and provided several ready-made proof-of-concept boards, including documentation, testing and demonstration software. In order to complete the evaluation kit, we will also provide mass-produced AUTOSAR® complex device drivers to speed up customer development.

Due to the continuous strengthening of lead supervision and the further decline in the price of lithium-ion batteries, the phasing out of automotive lead-acid battery technology may come sooner. NXP is fully prepared to allow customers to switch to smaller, lighter, safer and longer-lasting lithium-ion battery solutions. Therefore, we provide integrated and cost-optimized solutions for 12V batteries in functionally safe automotive and industrial applications. In order to help customers achieve this transformation, we provide a comprehensive evaluation ecosystem and new mass-produced software components.

Want to know more about MC33772C? Please watch the latest video.

author:

Eliminate lead from daily life
Konrad Lorentz
Product Manager of NXP Semiconductors Battery Management System

Konrad Lorentz holds a bachelor’s degree in international project engineering from Reutlingen University, Germany. In 2020, he joined NXP with a thesis on “automotive value chain” and currently serves as the product manager of the BMS marketing team.

Lead has many uses in the past, but it is a highly toxic substance that is very harmful to the human body and has been phased out in almost all places. One of the remaining applications today is the 12V starter battery, which is present in almost every car. The transition from lead-acid batteries to lithium-ion batteries is the basis for the EU’s legislative proposal to update this subject.

Lead-acid battery and lithium-ion battery technology

In addition to meeting the requirements of sustainable development, lithium-ion batteries also have excellent advantages in weight and volumetric energy density, which can significantly reduce the weight of vehicles and save space. The technology also supports the recovery of more energy during braking (higher dynamic charging acceptance) and improves the efficiency of the power system. Lithium-ion batteries have low self-discharge rate, superior cycle stability, and long shelf life, so they need to be replaced longer than equivalent lead-acid batteries. The challenge of lithium-ion technology is low-temperature performance, which is not suitable for starting internal combustion engines (ICE) in cold weather conditions. However, a recent technical comparison led by the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (EAMA) found that the cold-start performance of lithium-ion is equivalent to that of lead-acid. Although the price of lithium-ion batteries has dropped by approximately 89% between 2010 and 2020, the cost issue still exists.

Eliminate lead from daily life

With the continued electrification of automotive power systems, the dominance of cold start requirements has been weakened. In the case of plug-in hybrid vehicles, automakers use high-voltage systems to start internal combustion engines. This means there is no need for a 12V system that supports cold start. We believe that in the 12V batteries of hybrid and pure electric vehicles, lead-acid will soon be replaced by lithium-ion technology, because the longer the battery life, the more value it brings to customers. Unlike lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries require a battery management system (BMS) to implement some important functions, such as safety, capacity, multi-cell battery management, and charging control.

Advantages of integrated BMS solutions

All lithium-ion batteries require a battery management system (BMS) to achieve some important functions, including safety, capacity, multi-cell battery management, and charging control. NXP provides a complete integrated solution for 12V lithium-ion battery management, including accurate monitoring and protection of voltage, temperature sensing and current measurement of 3 to 6 batteries. The latest version C battery cell controller (BCC) MC33772 is equipped with all new functions to meet customer needs. The average value of the on-chip measurement effectively acts as a digital filter, helping to reduce the load on the communication bus and microcontroller, while allowing partial analog filtering to be removed. This helps to reduce overall eBOM costs, resulting in high-quality and cost-optimized solutions.

Eliminate lead from daily life

Safety

The AEC-Q100-compliant IC fully meets the requirements of automotive functional safety applications because it is designed according to the ISO 26262 specification and can achieve ASIL C at the chip level. Similarly, it is also suitable for other lead-acid replacement applications, including RV car auxiliary batteries, golf carts and solar cells, as well as drones, logistics robots, etc.

Implementation plan

As part of our implementation plan, NXP developed an evaluation board and provided several ready-made proof-of-concept boards, including documentation, testing and demonstration software. In order to complete the evaluation kit, we will also provide mass-produced AUTOSAR® complex device drivers to speed up customer development.

Due to the continuous strengthening of lead supervision and the further decline in the price of lithium-ion batteries, the phasing out of automotive lead-acid battery technology may come sooner. NXP is fully prepared to allow customers to switch to smaller, lighter, safer and longer-lasting lithium-ion battery solutions. Therefore, we provide integrated and cost-optimized solutions for 12V batteries in functionally safe automotive and industrial applications. In order to help customers achieve this transformation, we provide a comprehensive evaluation ecosystem and new mass-produced software components.

Want to know more about MC33772C? Please watch the latest video.

author:

Eliminate lead from daily life
Konrad Lorentz
Product Manager of NXP Semiconductors Battery Management System

Konrad Lorentz holds a bachelor’s degree in international project engineering from Reutlingen University, Germany. In 2020, he joined NXP with a thesis on “automotive value chain” and currently serves as the product manager of the BMS marketing team.

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